|Posted by Rey Bajenting on August 8, 2014 at 1:05 AM||comments (0)|
(To break the monotony, this blog has reckoned it wise to once in a while publish or republish articles by other authors. Below is written by Doc Andrew Bunan, who I consider a mentor in game fowl genetics.)
OF BLOODLINES AND PURE FOWLS
By Dr. Andrew Bunan
Bloodline – a byword in the Philippine game fowl industry. Why the fuss about it? Is it really that important to us?
There are those who say that performance is the name of the game. They don’t care what bloodline a game fowl belongs to, as long as it delivers the way they want it to deliver – in the pit and the brood pen, that is. In the end, though, they can’t help but mention the lineage of their fowl. Indirect, but all these are apparently centered on one thing: BLOODLINE.
While we say that performance should be the criterion for selecting a fighting fowl, we can’t help but consider the fact that particular fighting styles and degrees of gameness are associated with particular bloodlines. Why? Easy! Because these fowls have been selected for such, wittingly or unwittingly. Blood combinations would then determine the resulting fighting value of a fowl – the main determinant of how good a performance a particular game fowl could give.
Sometimes, we correlate fighting style and gameness with leg color. We say that dark legged fowls are brute, while light legged ones are stylish and careful. In the end though, we know that such are traits of particular bloodlines. So, there you are. For all we know, we can’t really do away with bloodlines. Besides, breeding is a lot easier with us relating particular fighting traits with particular bloodlines.
We say bloodline to mean different things. We may mean breed. Presently, there are bloodlines whose characteristics are so stable that birds breed true to type whenever used as brood fowls – they are able to stamp all their characteristics to their progeny, and this occurs generation upon generation. To top it all, these bloodlines started out as crosses. Bloodlines like these are actually breeds.
We may mean strains of what are supposed to be breeds. These strains have been produced through the isolation of trios coming from a particular breed. Through inbreeding and selection for traits of interest to the recipient breeder, voila! Strains galore!
My understanding of what strains are does not seem to agree with how we often come up with strains of a game chicken breed, though. From what I know, what we do is infuse some other blood to the bloodline we are supposed to maintain – we want it improved. Aiming for its improvement is no problem, as this is always our objective in breeding game chickens.
If we do infusion to perk our bloodline up, we are in fact doing crossbreeding. If we decide to make permanent the proportion of the genes contributed by the bloodline we infused, our end product is not a strain – it is, in fact, a new breed! For this reason, many of us suppose that we have a strain of a breed, when the fact is, we formed a new breed of game chicken.
Sometimes, we just want a particular brood fowl to be part of every fowl in our yard. So we line breed. The result? Some of us call it bloodline. Are we correct? Yes we are, because bloodline is defined as fowls that have a certain degree of blood relationship with one another.
Linebred birds, though, may not be as valuable genetic materials as those belonging to the breed and strain categories. The value of linebred chickens as brood fowls depends upon our original intention for doing such. If we backcross a brood fowl’s progeny to him or her continually until we are able to produce a generation that approximates the genetic composition and physical appearance of our original brood fowl, then the progeny is valuable as breeding materials, particularly those that contain higher percentages of the brood fowl’s blood.
On the other hand, if our primary aim is to allow a particular ace brood fowl to exert influence upon as many fowls as possible in generations younger than its own, the progeny may not necessarily be that valuable as brood fowls. In such a program, each of the latter offspring generations may contain only a quarter of the brood fowl’s blood.
There are other bloodline categories that we are not really that familiar with. Ever heard of variety? Family? Let us look at Claret. The reason for calling this bloodline as such is certainly because of its plumage color. Claret is wine that is dark red in color. Often, we say the typical Claret is wine red in color.
Did you know that there are grey and white Clarets as well? These seem off-tangent, but not fluke – they’re true-bloodied Clarets? What are they then? These are what we call varieties of the Claret breed. Greys and whites were used in forming Claret and, because of recombination, were certain to resurface generation after generation. What Claret breeders did was to set these off-types as bloodlines themselves. Being true-blue Clarets in blood, these have to be Clarets as well.
What about family? In animal breeding, we have the so-called full-sib and half-sib families. In other words, these are families composed of full siblings or half siblings. In our case, we normally refer to full-sib families – siblings with the same sire (father) and dam (mother).
In recapitulation, there are four bloodline categories where the products of our breeding may belong: breed, variety, strain and family. To which of these do our game chickens belong?
|Posted by Rey Bajenting on July 4, 2014 at 5:55 AM||comments (0)|
DW, a famous breeder in Tennessee, is not that popular to Filipino game fowl aficionados, maybe, because he fights only in gaff competitions. However, one man knows too well that DW’s roosters can as well win in the long knife. “Indeed, they have been winning consistently in the long knife,” he said, “including in the Philippines.”
Unfortunately, those winning with DWs bloodline in the Philippines are not making noise about it. Maybe, it’s their nature to be humble in victory or maybe, they just don’t like to call the attention of others to winning lines, they discovered.
This man, who knows DW’s bloodlines well, out of friendship, guided us to a potential gold mine. On our part, we also did our homework. We searched the web and indeed we found out that one of DW’s bloodlines, his shuffler really has some good reviews and commands sizable following.
So, clearly, if DW fights only in gaff as what our friend told us, then his bloodlines are versatile as they also win in the short and long knife, notwithstanding the fact they are not bred for these types of fighting. Others may call it prospecting, but to us, versatile bloodlines are gold waiting to be stricken.
Why? Of course that means they are complete and all around fighters because a bloodline with only a few strengths may win in one but not in all different types of weapons. DW’s bloodlines are like martial art masters who are dangerous and can kill with any weapon at hand.
Heeding our friend’s advice, we immediately set our eyes not only on the DW shuffler but also his roundheads and Albany.
Losing no time, RB Sugbo got all three of the DW bloodlines. Thanks friend, Vency Maranan of New Jersey.
Here are the DW's versatile bloodlines:
According to our friend and bloodline consultant Vency Maranan of New Jersey, the shuffler of DW originally came from Chet Layne. Subsequently, Chet got a trio from DW and produced nine males. The first two that Chet fought lost. But the remaining seven won four derbies in gaff, short knife, and long knife. This showed the versatility of their shuffler.
Chet won a 5-cock derby in Mcdowell, Kentucky using cocks from the same trio. He had two entries in that derby. One entry scored five straight wins, the other had 4 wins and a loss.
DW also won a couple of 4-cock derbies in Mississippi using his different bloodlines. DW has three main bloodlines—the roundhead, the Albany and the shuffler. Obviously, the shuffler is DW’s favorite as, according to Vency, 80-90% of DW’s roosters are black. DW likes the shuffler pure, but he also maintains a line infused with brownred.
DW’s roundhead originated from Guy Whitmire, who was said to have supplied his RH bloodline to Oscar Akins. Later, DW infused the Lacy from Frank Ellis. He called this blend Little Leo. Later, still, the Hugh Norman Lacy was infused to the Little Leo to improve the line further. It is now known as the DW RH.
DW roundhead became a favorite of the late Filipino great breeder of game fowl, Capt. de Sagun. “The Captain” was by no means ignorant of what types of roosters could win in the long knife. If “The Captain” liked a certain bloodlines, then it must be something.
The Albany of DW came from the O’Connel Albany. One great historical contribution of the O’Connel line was its role in creating the famous yankee clippers bloodline.
The O’Connell Albany from D is of Knox Moore line acquired by Doyle from Richard Kelly of the Coal Miner Mugs fame. The Dw O’Connell Albany is light red with some lemon hackles, medium station, yellow legged and straight comb.
|Posted by Rey Bajenting on June 29, 2014 at 3:15 AM||comments (0)|
Peruvian craze, mania or fever. Call it whatever you want. The fact is the Peruvian game fowl is gaining popularity in the Philippines. Many Filipino breeders are now raising the Peruvian, despite its costly price. Indeed, many would vow to the ability and value of the Peruvian.
A word of caution though, to Peruvian breeders and would be breeders. The Peruvian in general is just like most other types of roosters, there are good Peruvs, there are bum. The tendency to break high and ability to cut well are the main assets of the Peruvian. Good Peruvians break high and cut well. But even the best Peruvians have at least four obvious defects. Although to some Peruvs are beautiful, to many standards, Peruvian fowl are very ugly--big head, hunch back, some with very long neck, some with bull neck, big feet, ugly feathers some even naked etc. How to get rid of these defects while keeping the two good traits is the challenge.
Mathematics is against the Peruvians. Four or more negative traits and only two positive is negative. So why breed the Peruvian? Some raise the Peruv for status symbol. It is expensive and not easy to acquire. Others raise the Peruvian because it’s the “in thing.” Others really believe that Peruvians is such an excellent specimen of a game fowl. Meanwhile good breeders breed the Peruvian because of the challenge.
That’s right the challenge. To me breeding the Peruv is only for real breeders, not for ‘maters,’ as Ben Dimaano would like to call them. Breeding the American fowl is too easy. There are so many near perfect specimens of American game cocks available, that anyone of us “maters” may be able produce super individuals by just acquiring expensive breeding stock of American game from good breeders. On the other hand, when you breed the Peruvian it is almost like starting from scratch. You have to work your way up. With the Peruvian you have to know what you’re doing. You have to be a true breeder. That’s the hardest part. But, that makes the Peruvs fascinating.
|Posted by Rey Bajenting on June 20, 2014 at 4:05 AM||comments (0)|
In 2003-2004 I was researching for an article on the lemons for Pit Games magazine when I myself became fascinated with the different lemon strains. The result was not just a most comprehensive account of the history of the lemons but also my initiation to breeding them. I interviewed such lemon luminaries as Paeng Araneta, Mayor Juancho Aguirre, Lance dela Torre and Joe Laurenio. From these gentlemen I also got beautiful specimens of the lemon. From these materials came about the Sugbo lemons.
The Sugbo lemon was result of the mixing the lemon guapo, the batsoy, Lance's and the green legged 84. Then we put in a dash of the blue face. That’s when I set it as a bloodline. The composition has remained more or less the same for the past five years. It’s about time I give it a valuable infusion of new blood. This new blood will come from an old line. (Read what old lines contribute)
Infusion is the bringing in of a new blood and then slowly breeding it out. Traditional or preservationist breeders find infusion a useful technique. But, to practical breeders infusion is very time-consuming. And the idea of spending for a new bloodline that you will breed out eventually sounds silly from the point of view of a practical breeder. However, even practical breeders like me, resort to infusion from time to time. The purpose of infusion is what is called “shot in the arm.” After generations of keeping a bloodline pure, the genetic variation will become limited and dormant, such that an injection of new genes will awaken the bloodline. By slowly breeding out the new blood, the original bloodline will be restored almost to its old composition, but with more genetic variations.
Presently the Sugbo lemon will undergo a vital infusion with the acquisition by RB Sugbo GT of an imported old-time O’Connell Albany line (shown in photo below this article). The O’Connell Albany from DWn is among the latest addition to the RB Sugbo gene banks. It is of Knox Moore line acquired by DW from Richard Kelly of the Coal Miner Mugs fame. In turn I acquired it from DW through the intervention of my friend Vency Maranan of New Jersey. He is our consultant on acquisition of imported bloodlines.
We foresee that the O’Connell albany will further add bottom to the sugbo lemon. It will also add more power and make the bloodline a little more “leady.” (Read about the difference between infusion and intervention)
The image below is of the O' Connell Albany which was acquired by RB Sugbo GT from DW of Tennessee, USA.
|Posted by Rey Bajenting on June 16, 2014 at 5:55 AM||comments (2)|
Every game fowl breeder knows that he can either inbreed or cross breed. And, he should know the advantages and disadvantages, as well as the dangers of the respective methods. But, mostly, I forget about inbreeding. Yes, I don’t inbreed, unless the advantages are so obvious. I resort to inbreeding only when a family is so good that it is very difficult and thus too costly to find a better outside blood to improve the family any further. Or, when effecting .progressive sequence, a concept we will discuss in one of the succeeding chapters.
If ever I resort to inbreeding, I do it only for one, or at most, two generations. I find continuous inbreeding for more than two generations unwise. I reckon the risks out weight the possible benefits. Inbreeding aims at purifying desirable characteristics so that individuals become homozygous of these desired traits to increases the probability that these traits will be passed on to the next generation. Inbreeding, however, may result in in- breeding depression. Offspring may become small, weak, sickly and even downright dunghill. Inbreeding is delicate and tricky. It will take precise and accurate skills of the breeder in order to avert a breakdown of the line being inbred.
So, the purpose of inbreeding is to purify traits. The question, therefore, is can we purify traits without resorting to inbreeding? Of course we can. So, we can forget about inbreeding.
|Posted by Rey Bajenting on June 10, 2014 at 1:05 AM||comments (0)|
What are old bloodlines for, aside from historical value? Old bloodlines are not beautiful enough, and not good enough for today’s long knife competitions, but they have uncompromised gameness and extreme endurance which most new bloodlines lack.
Why? Because these oldies were bred for the gaff, whereas our new bloodlines in the Philippines were bred for the long knife.
So, maybe it wouldn’t hurt if from time to time you go breeding back to old reliable lines and give your lines the much needed dose of gameness and endurance. These two attributes are necessary in winning closely contested fights even in the LK.
Another theory in favor of breeding back to the old reliable is that the genetic composition of these old bloodlines, are very much different from the new ones we have today. If we breed one new bloodline to another new bloodline the genetic make up of the resulting offspring is not much different. On the other hand, breeding new to old will result in more genetic diversity. Breeders and geneticists would tell us that greater diversity in a gene pool is desirable. This increases the chances of a nick. Remember inbreeding and crossbreeding?
We somewhat subscribe to this theory. Below are a couple of old bloodlines that we know of. We are hoping a small dose of these bloodlines will give our existing lines the shot in the arms.
E.H. Hulsey Pumpkin.
Many of today’s gold bloodlines are believed to have originated from the Yellow Birchens or Gingers. The early reference to their development in America was attributed to E.H Hulsey the "The Earl", not the “Duke.”
E.H fought these fowls along with Jack Walton and Henry Wortham. Subsequently Wil Allen also fought them. Likewise, Sweater McGinnis and then many others like Sam Bigham. Many confuse Sam Bigham with Roy Bingham. Today Bingham Gold is the more well known. But some time ago, Sam Bigham's golds were well known as superior cocks in Texas.
Roy Bingham and later Larry Carter and many others followed breeding the golds. But it was to E.H. Hulsey that the development of the modern day golds should be attributed.
Our golds came from Vency Maranan who in turn got them from Wildfoot farm. This line will give our ponkans the boost.
Dan O'Connell Albany.
One great historical contribution of this line was its role in creating the famous yankee clippers bloodline. Ours is as bred by Doyle Watson (Steel Magnolia) of Tennessee. The O’Connell Albany from Doyle Watson is of Knox Moore line acquired by Doyle from Richard Kelly of the Coal Miner Mugs fame. Our O’Connell Albany is light red with some lemon hackles, medium station, yellow legged and straight comb. This line might be good to give our Sugbo lemon that “heavier leady feel” and bottom.
|Posted by Rey Bajenting on May 30, 2014 at 11:40 PM||comments (0)|
(To break the monotony, this blog has reckoned it wise to once in a while publish or republish articles by other authors. Below is written by famous American breeder Jerry Lawrence and is part of his article published on Pit Games. In this piece Lawrence talks about the dom game fowl, a bloodline that he himself breeds.)
By Jerry B. Lawrence
In the USA we call these beautiful barred birds "Dom" which is a shortened form of "Dominique." In the Philippines they are known as "Bulik". In Spanish countries they are called "Bulico",which refers to a colored Dom, or "Dominico", which refers to a black and white Dom. In England and Ireland they are called "Crele", which refers to a colored Dom, or "Cuckoo", which refers to a black and white Dom. What makes them "Dom" is the presence of a "barring" gene which expresses barred or zig-zag spots of color caused by a patterned inhibition (blocking) of color pigmentation. The color in the pattern may be inhibited to pure white bars or to a lighter shade of the birds natural genetic color. A totally white bird may carry the barring gene, but, with no color pigment present to inhibit, the barring cannot be expressed until the white bird is bred to colored fowl.
The American Dom
In the 1800's the Dom fowl in America were rooted in stock from England and Ireland. In the 1900's some breeders used Spanish bloodlines such as the famous "Quatro Telas" Spanish Doms. These barred fowl have been infused with Whitehackle, Sid Taylor, Mug and other non-barred bloodlines, so at this point in time I prefer to call them "American Dom," as they are no longer an English Dom or Irish Dom. Following is a summary of some of the many families of Dom fowl that have been popular in the USA. These Dom families have won many mains and derbies including being used in the Orlando Tournament by Mr. J. D. Gay and Mr. E. W. Law.
* O'Neal Dom: Tom O'Neal of Kentucky. Late 1800's, probably Irish. Foundation for several Dom families.
* Gee Dom (Georgia Dom): Dr. James Gee. Mid 1800's. Said to be the oldest Dom family in USA and made from a cross of Sumatra and Irish Pyle, followed by infusion of Gleezen Whitehackle.
* Gay Dom: J. D. Gay. O'Neal Dom and Sid Taylor
* Sure Shot Dom: Quinn Robb of Missouri ( originator ) and Scott Gay of Tennessee. Minton Dom and other bloodlines. Called "Sure Shot" because they would often kill the opponent on the first fly. Presently being bred by Howard Gay of Tennessee and Lester Belt Jr. of Oklahoma.
* Kentucky Dom: Dr. Frymire. Early 1900's. O'Neal Dom, Mug, and many other infusions.
* Minton Dom: Col. Minton. Early 1900's.
* Mingus Dom: F. B. Mingus. Mid 1900's. Reported to have used Cuban Dom in the makeup of this family. Mr. Mingus also had Sid Taylor and Traveler which were most likely blended to the Cuban Dom.
* Chappell Dom: Chappell family of South Carolina and Alabama. English white tassell, Spanish, Mingus Dom, Sure Shot Dom. Presently being bred by Kris Chappell of Alabama, the 6th generation of the Chappell family breeders.
* Darnell Doms: Fought by Harry Charles in the mid 1900s, winning many major circuit derbies
* Kimbrell Dom: Sam Kimbrell of Nebraska and Idaho. Mid 1900's. Infusion of Hammond Gordon in 1939. Bobby Boles bred a Kimbrell hen to the BB blacks.
* Sullivan Dom: Also used by Bobby Boles.
American Dom in the Philippines:
* Cavite Dom: Captain Joe De Sagon of Cavite has been breeding American Dom since the early 1980's, obtaining the original stock from a small breeder in Georgia who was related to a man that worked with the Captain in Alaska. These Doms from Georgia had large heads and tall station. The Captain has used Persian type of non-barred bloodlines such as Hatch and Kelso to maintain this family. Note that Captain De Sagon is recognized as being one of the best breeders in the Philippines and has a high-percentage win record with these Doms since 1986. Presently the Captain still raises a few as a hobby but does not sell them.
* Many breeders in the Philippines are using American Dom breeding stocks from Kris Chappell, Brian Corkren, JBL Farm, Howard Gay, and other US sources.
Breeding Dom Gamefowl
Good breeding practice for producing high quality Dom gamefowl will be to maintain a balance between the Sumatra and Persian characteristics from the best stocks that you have available to you. If you breed too strong to the Persian type of fowl (for example Whitehackle type fowl), the quick killing ability of the Dom may be lost. If you breed too strong to Sumatra type fowl (for example black fowl, or too much Dom to Dom), you may lose gameness, or your fowl may become nervous and wild due to low testosterone. Note that Doms have fallen from popularity from time to time because of problems maintaining their gameness and mental stability. Now that Doms are popular and more commercial breeding is taking place, the quality of the mass Dom population may decline.
If you have a Dom breeding program or plan to breed Doms, I recommend that you make a Sumatra line and a Persian line, and use these two lines for crossing to each other ( I do not do this, but do as I say, not as I do). The Sumatra line, for example, could be a barred breeding infused with black toppy. The Persian line, for example, could be a barred breeding infused with Butcher and straight-comb Hatch. These will be good for competition, but you can also use an Oriental dosage for competition using a good pea-comb bloodline such as Albany or Boston Roundhead. Do not breed willy-nilly without a plan, and pay attention to your female lineage.
|Posted by Rey Bajenting on May 15, 2014 at 1:05 AM||comments (0)|
My friend Ben Dimaano, a game fowl breeder, has a very straightforward definition of a breeder. According to him, a breeder is one who understands genetics, has specific goals in his breeding program and approaches the goals systematically, and can breed true to type according to his goals. In short, he knows what he is doing.
I told him, if that’s the case only a very few would qualify to be called a breeder. What will it make the great majority of the members of the so-called GBA’s? Well, Ben answered: “They are maters.” They just mate game fowl hoping to get a nick or to duplicate the fowl of the person they got their materials from.
Not that I agree entirely to his definition. But, I think if we breed the game fowl, it’s true we need fundamental knowledge in genetics. Of course we don’t need it if we are into breeding just for the gambling aspect of cockfighting or for the bragging rights of being called a breeder kuno. We just buy expensive materials from known breeders and propagate them. There are so many rich kids doing this.
What we need fundamental knowledge in genetics for is in order to enjoy and get satisfaction from what we are doing. We cannot enjoy doing something we are ignorant of. Basic knowledge will enable us to set genetic objectives. Then, we can determine whether we had succeeded or failed with regards to our genetic objectives. Such objectives could be simple like producing chickens with straight comb. Or complex like combining different fighting traits to produce roosters with power, speed, flight and shuffle. Without essential knowledge or if we are ignorant of genetics we will not know how to start toward our goal. We will not even be able to formulate genetic objectives.
Genetics, the science that governs reproduction of genes, is a complicated study on how genes are passed on from one generation to the next. The complexity of genetics is one reason why game fowl breeding is not a simple matter. If we believe Ben, to be a “mater” is much simpler.
Because of the complexity of genetics, no breeder, regardless of ability and resources, can be certain of the outcome of a mating. Because of this, breeding is regarded as the highest form of involvement in the chicken sport. According to Ben the reason why GBAs prosper, is because everybody wants to be called breeder.
Yes, it is not easy to become a successful breeder. But this should not discourage us from taking up the challenge and perhaps the satisfaction in creating bloodlines of our own name and liking. Genetics is important. But it doesn’t mean we have to earn a master or doctorate in genetics in order to be able to breed the game fowl. Basic knowledge in genetics and a lot of common sense would be enough. Basic knowledge and common sense are enough to set one up as a practical breeder.
For your conditioning supplements, visit gamevitz.com
|Posted by Rey Bajenting on April 12, 2014 at 5:25 AM||comments (0)|
(To break the monotony, this blog has reckoned it wise to once in a while publish or republish articles by other authors. Following is an article by Bobby Jones, about himself. This was published in Texas Monthly, June 2011. )
By Bobby Jones
I began raising birds when I was twelve years old. It was more or less a hobby for years. But by 1977, I was traveling with my birds to states where game fowl harvesting was legal. That, along with construction, was how I made my living. In the late eighties, when the economy was bad, I started a business, Bobby Jones Hatchery. I raised as many birds as the market could stand: Sometimes it was 600 or 700 a year; other times it was 1,500. Soon the birds became my sole source of income. â€¨I began getting invitations to countries where harvesting is widely accepted, like the Philippines, Guam, Saipan, and, of course, Mexico.
The reason my birds were an overnight success is that in 1970 I secured two bloodlines from a famous breeder in Killeen, Joe Goode. He was a mentor of mine. He was breeding his fowl the way everyone does today, except he was thirty or forty years ahead of his time. Back then, breeders focused on pure bloodlines—the chicken business has as many as the cattle industry does, with its Holsteins and Herefords and Brahmans—but what Goode did was find a quality rooster, then breed the rooster’s sisters to another quality, tested rooster. If he found a bird with particularly desirable characteristics, he’d take him out of fighting and focus on breeding him.
Breeding game chickens is like breeding racehorses. I mean, think of how many foals Secretariat sired. You can’t tell if a bird is promising the moment it hatches; you have to watch it over time. Ultimately what makes a good bird great is the way you care for it. It’s a 365-day-a-year job: overseeing what kind of feed your birds get, their water, their nutrients and vitamins. This animal husbandry is where it’s all at; the harvesting is just a small part of a bird’s life. I now own five bloodlines: a straight-comb red, a straight-comb dark-legged, a pea-comb, a black, and what we call a gray—it’s actually more or less yellow. Most of these breeds are referred to by their colors.
Politics often gets in the way of my livelihood. There used to be a few small harvesting facilities around Texas that I’d visit in my early twenties. But Governor Dolph Briscoe formed a crime prevention task force to control, among other things, the drugs coming across the border—this was in the seventies—and I guess law enforcement got tired of chasing drug dealers, because they started shutting down our facilities, which were labeled organized crime. That sent me on visits to Oklahoma. In 1963 a judge on Oklahoma’s court of criminal appeals had ruled that a chicken was not an animal, so harvesting was alive and well across the state line. Then, in 2002, voters in Oklahoma banned cockfighting in their state too.
This spring I spoke at the Capitol against a bill that would outlaw game fowl breeding, to defend my right to own and sell birds. John Goodwin, of the Humane Society of the United States, testified in favor of the bill. He had gone undercover and filmed some so-called illegal fights, and then he said that harvesting is associated with crime, gambling, and prostitution. But it’s not like that. The women he filmed at the fights were nothing more than sisters, mothers, and daughters; his remarks are really unfortunate. I remember one time at a facility in Louisiana, some ladies of the night did show up. It took the owners all of fifteen minutes to tell those gals they weren’t welcome.
As for gambling, what goes on at harvesting facilities is no different from what you see at a golf course, the rodeo circuit, or a bass tournament. It’s a gentleman’s wager, like betting on a football game. The governors of Texas and Oklahoma bet on the Red River Shootout every year, and there’s no discussion about that. The law comes after us even though all the golf, rodeo, and bass people are doing the same thing.
I’m not the least ashamed of what I do. People try to make comparisons to harvesting—how it’s no more or less moral than a boxing match, say—but I don’t think those comparisons are apt or necessary. Gamecocks are an agricultural commodity. No, what I’d like to see is a law that gives rural counties the power to decide what they want, instead of being told what to do by people in cities. Why are people in areas like Houston and Dallas, where there’s practically no morality, able to dictate what we do in rural areas, when they know nothing about it?
Cockfighting came over on the Mayflower. It’s part of our nation’s culture. All your plantation owners in early American history, they had their racehorses and their game fowl. There are instruments that we use in game harvesting, like the slasher and the gaff, which is like an ice pick that is fitted onto the spurs on the fighting bird’s feet. Well, the gaff originated in England; it came over on the Mayflower. And the slashers—in Mexico they are about one inch long, and in the Pacific they are longer—are comparable to what Pilgrim’s and Tyson use to harvest their birds commercially. The difference is that we have rules that govern our harvesting. When a rooster has had enough, he’s had enough, and he’s counted out just like a boxer is.
A lot of breeders, their birds have been in their family for two or three or four generations. I’m completely outside that, because I fell in love with them as a kid for their tenacity and their looks. I checked both sides of my family tree, and nobody even knew what a gamecock was until I came along.
|Posted by Rey Bajenting on May 12, 2013 at 5:40 AM||comments (0)|
Tanong: ka mana my tanong po ako.. saan po ba nagmamana ng laro ang isang stag sa tatay po ba o sa nanay? salamat po! (Ej Marquez Dela Cruz May 10, 2013 8:13am; FB PM to Masang Nagmamanok relayed to kamana Rey Bajenting)
Sagot ni kamana Rey (Relayed by Masang Nagmamanok FB PM 9:50am May 10, 2013):
Depende po yan kamana. Theoritically and genetically half sa tatay half sa nanay. Dahil sa bawat katangian kalahati ay galling sa ama kalahati ay galling sa ina.
Pero naapektuhan yan dominant-recessive gene action. Kasi kung sinong parent ang magbato ng dominant na gene doon sa kanya magmamana ang anak sa naturang katangian.
Halimbawa sa hugis ng palong, straight comb o pea comb. Ang pea comb ay dominante kaysa straight comb. Kung ang Tatay ay straight comb at ang nanay ay peacomb. Ang lalabas sa anak ay pea comb.
100% itong mangyayri kung ang nanay ay puro pea comb. Subalit maari ring ang nanay ay pea comb kung tingnan dahil dominante nga ang pea comb kaysa straight comb, pero sa totoo ito ay half peacomb half straight comb. Pag ganito ang nanay ay hindi puro pea comb at maaring magbato sa anak ng katangiang straight comb. Kung magkataon na ang ibato ng nanay ay ang gene nito na straight comb ang lalabas sa anak nito sa brood cock na straight comb ay straight comb.
Maliban sa dominant-recessive gene action may iba pang mga factors. Isa dito ay ang sex-linked genes. Ito ang mamamana lang sa anak na opposite sex. Halimbawa ang katangiang white leg. Kung white leg ang inahin at yellow leg ang brood cock, ang lalabas sa mga anak na lalaki ay white leg at sa anak na babae ay yellow leg.
Mayroon din ang co-dominance kung kalian maghalohalo ang katangian ng ama at ina.
Samakatuwid sa fighting ability maari ring magkahalohalo ang katangian ng ama at ina, maaring lilitaw ang dominant trait, o maari ring may sex-linkage at iba pa.
Ang hugis ng palong, kulay ng paa ay mga simple hereditary traits samantalang ang katangian sa pakipaglaban ay dinidiktahan ng maraming ibat ibang genes . Kaya mahirap matukoy ang totoong sanhi ng pagiging magaling ng isang manok. Kay tiyakin nalang natin na ang ama at ina ay parehong taglay ang mga katangian na nais natin.
Itanong sa RB Sugbo: Kung may katanungan po kayo hinggil sa pagmamanok, i-click ang category na tugma sa inyong katanungan. At i-post as new topic ang inyong katanungan. Sisikapin itong sasagutin ng RB Sugbo Gamefowl Technology.
Tanong: Gud pm ano po ba ang lahi ng manok ang mgagandang pumalo at madiskarte sa laban? (02:45:05AM feb 27-2007)
Sagot ni Kamana Rey:
Napakahirap sagutin ang mga ganitong katanungan. Lalo na kung sa pamamagitan lang ng pagtetext.
Oo, ang iba’t-ibang lahi ng manok dapat ay may kani-kanilang istilo sa pakipaglaban.
Halimbawa ang lemon ay dapat mautak at magaling sa cutting. Ang hatch naman ay malakas at matibay. Ngunit ang totoo ay hindi sa lahat na pagkakataon ay nagkakatotoo ito. May lemon na di gaanong mautak. May hatch naman na hindi matibay.
Kahit anong lahi o linyada ay may magagaling at may mga bulok. Kaya hindi tama na ibatay natin ang ating pagpili ng manok sa pangalan o sa katanyagan ng lahi.
Dapat ang pagpili natin ay batay sa kakayahan at katangian ng indibidwal na manok. Huwag pangalan ang habulin natin. Dapat ang galing ang ating gawing batayan sa pagpili.
Hindi kasi garantisado kung sa pangalan ng lahi natin ibatay. Una, kung hindi tapat ang nagpapalahi ay pwede niyang sabihin na ang kanyang manok ay pure lemon, kahit ito’y may halo. Pangalawa, wala naman talagang puro na genes kung manok ang pag-uusapan.
Lahat naman ng lahi ng manok ay nagsimula sa paghalohalo ng dalawa, tatlo, o mas marami pang lahi.
Kaya, huwag na nating isipin kung ano ang pangalan ng lahi ng manok. Hanapin natin ang magaling na manok, hindi ang katanyagan ng pangalan ng lahi.
Ang magaling na manok ay magaling, kahit ano paman ang tawag sa kanya.
|Posted by Rey Bajenting on October 5, 2012 at 5:45 AM||comments (0)|
About a month before you start mating, the breeders should be deloused, dewormed and treated to bacterial flushing. Deworm the chickens with a reliable dewormer. Deloused them. Then give antibiotics for flushing. For this purpose, instead of chemical antibiotics, we give garlic, a natural antibiotic. Garlic has Allicin, an antibacterial compound. Because of this garlic is known as nature’s antibiotic.
We at RB Sugbo Gamefowl Technology only use commercial pharmaceutical antibiotics when there is outbreak of disease. However, it is known that among the bad effects of antibiotic is that it cannot distinguish good bacteria from the bad, thereby killing both. It is therefore necessary that we give probiotic to the breeders after bacterial flushing to replenish the good bacteria killed by antibiotic. We also advice that you incorporate in the nutrition program probiotic and organic feeding methods.
The day after the bacterial flushing is completed immediately start giving probiotics such as Super Manok performance enhancer probiotic supplement, or any other good probiotic product. The two most opportune time to start probiotic application are on the first day of the chicks life and after use of antibiotics. In both cases, the good bacteria in the probiotics will have a good foothold in the micro flora of the chicken in the absence of rival bad bacteria.
Also give the breeders ample vitamin supplement. B complex and vitamins A,D,E. the hens need lots of calcium and phosphorous. The probiotics will help in the efficient absorption of nutrients, including vitamins and minerals.
Another very important element to aid fertilility and well being are herbs. Mix malunggay leaves and onions with the feed. Malunggay or moringa will increase the brood fowl’s fertility.
For feeds, give breeders pellets. Pick breeders’ pellet brands without antibiotic additive.
We at RB Sugbo also give our breeders flax seed for additional Omega 3 that will aid in egg laying rate , egg quality and fertility. It is also better to check the ph level of the water we give our chickens. Avoid water that is too acidic. Most tap water are on the acidic side and are chlorinated.
Trim the spurs of the cock. Long spurs will hurt the hens. Trim the vent feathers of both the brood cocks and hens.
Brood cocks should be just a little over their fighting weight. The hens should be neither too fat nor too thin.
Separate the brood cock from the hens when feeding. Otherwise the brood cock will offer its share to the hens.
|Posted by Rey Bajenting on September 25, 2012 at 11:30 PM||comments (0)|
Progressive sequence mating is another breeding principle of RB Sugbo Gamefowl Technology.
The desire of all breeders should be to improve his stock from one generation to another. Meaning, the current generation should be better than the previous one, and the next generation better than the current one. This is progressive sequence program.
The best way to assess results of your mating is to measure the pit performance of the current generation against the previous generation. This could be done by comparing the win percentage of the offspring with the average win percentage of the brood cock and its brothers and the hens’ brothers. This is the most effective provided that certain perimeters of standards are observed. Meaning, the fights that are subject of the statistics are more or less of the same caliber.
This objective process, however, would take a lot of sampling and would be sometimes unavailable. For example you may not have knowledge of the results of the fights of all the individuals in the families to which your acquired brood cock and hens belonged.
A less objective but most handy way to assess results of a mating, moreover, if the line is new to you and, therefore, not enough of produce have been fought to merit an evaluation through pit performance, is by comparing the attributes of the male offspring to those of the father. This might be subjective, but depending on your selection and evaluation capabilities, this process is also effective. At any rate, there is a very high correlation between expert’s opinion and win percentage. In you are a new breeder of the bloodline, your only option is to resort to the latter manner of assessing the results of your mating.
With the principle of progressive sequence in mind, and using the latter method of assessment, there will be four likely possible results:
1. The offspring are super.
2. The offspring are better than the father.
3. The offspring are about equal to the father.
4. The offspring are less than the father.
For each of the possibilities, we recommend corresponding subsequent matings to do in order to keep the line progressive.
The complete chapter on progressive sequence breeding is on the coming book “The Practical Breeder: Ideas that work.” soon to be published by RB Sugbo GT.
|Posted by Rey Bajenting on June 5, 2012 at 11:30 AM||comments (0)|
The RB Sugbo bio-organic management system or Rooster Biotech, is aimed at instituting harmonious interrelationship between land and animals, and respect for their physiological and behavioral needs. This can be achieved by a combination of providing proper feeds and probiotic supplement; appropriate stocking rates, overall animal husbandry systems that fit behavioral needs, and management practices that seek to promote health and wellness and prevent diseases.
Every game fowl breeder aspires for healthy stock. As healthy young chickens grow into mighty fierce warriors. And, we believe that on pleasant ecosystem grows healthy and good chickens.
It is important to understand that biological farming is not new. Generations of farmers have successfully followed this farming method. They knew how to work the land and understood the process of harnessing nature. Biological farming today is a system that uses nature and science to build the quality of the soil with the understanding that healthy soil will be able to support healthy crops and livestock. It takes advantage of natural processes, which promote good soil, healthy crops, and healthy animals. This means using natural systems to improve soil structure; control weeds, pests, and diseases, and improve crop and livestock quality.
Soil that is healthy contains a balance between the organic particles that serve as plant food and the living micro-organisms like bacteria, fungi, algae and the larger ones like earthworms. These organisms process and decompose the inert mineral and organic materials, thereby feeding the plants. An optimally productive soil contains a perfect balance of inorganic minerals, organic (carbon-based) materials, and living organisms, all contained within a physical structure that absorbs and holds water to facilitate natural chemical reactions that feed plants perfectly.
Excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides can upset this balance in the soil, the exact opposite of what is required.
Biological farming, when applied to game fowl, also makes economic sense. The input costs of antibiotics and chemicals are reduced as the healthier chickens are more disease resistant.
The biological approach to farming yields soil that is healthy and able to support healthy crops. These crops are nutrient dense – meaning that they contain higher concentrations of plant sugars, minerals and amino acids and therefore have a higher nutritional value. And, these plants and microorganism in the soil will be eaten by the chickens providing a balance nutrient input and better absorption. Biological method applied to game fowl raising is by no means the easiest method but the results are worth it and following a biological approach means that Nature will always be there to lend a hand.
|Posted by Rey Bajenting on March 10, 2012 at 6:00 AM||comments (0)|
Infusion is the bringing in of a new blood and then slowly breeding it out. Say you will introduce a kelso blood to your bloodline of sweaters the resulting generation will be ½ kelso ½ sweater. You will then breed out the kelso blood by mating the ½ kelso ½ sweater generation to a pure sweater. The next genera-tion will then be ¾ sweater ¼ kelso. If you breed an-other pure sweater to this generation, the next generation will only have 1/8 kelso blood. This generation will have individuals with blood composition that is almost back to the original. Some breeders will go as far as 1/16; or even 1/32 left of the infused bloodline.
Traditional or preservationist breeders find in-fusion a useful technique. But, to practical breeders infusion is very time-consuming. And the idea of spending for a new bloodline that you will breed out eventually, sounds silly from the point of view of a practical breeder.
The purpose of infusion is what is called shot in the arm. After generations of keeping a bloodline pure, the genetic variation will become limited and dormant, such that an injection of new genes will awaken the bloodline. By slowly breeding out the new blood, the original bloodline will be restored. This idea is very enticing to dogmatic breeders but unappealing to practical breeders.
The difference between upgrading and infusion is that in a series of upgrading the old bloodline will eventually be phased out, while in infusion the object is to restore the old bloodline with a little change in the genetic composition.
Intervention is another word we coined at RB Sugbo Gamefowl Technology for another sort of a breeding-in-breeding-out technique because we did not know what the proper genetics term is, if any. There might be times that we will desire a new look in a bloodline we want to maintain. For example we have a family of hatch that we want to keep, but at the same time we desire to make them black in plumage. What we do is breed the hatch to a black family. The off-spring will have 1/2 blood of the hatch but will be black in plumage. If we breed these blacks back to the hatch family we will get some blacks that are ¾ hatch.
Continuous back breeding to the hatch side will produce chickens that are almost pure of the hatch family but are black in plumage. Intervention differs from infusion in purpose. In infusion, we want the new blood to perish without trace. In intervention we want to keep in the old bloodline the new trait we introduce.
Like infusion, intervention would not be tempting to practical breeders as it is likewise time consuming and will not serve any practical purpose.
At any rate, however, it is fund to give it a try someday.(Subscribe to Roosterman http://manapub.wordpress.com/)
|Posted by Rey Bajenting on February 13, 2012 at 5:00 PM||comments (0)|
The process of forming a new bloodline we can call our own invariably involves inbreeding at some point but maintaining said new bloodline calls for out breeding, no longer inbreeding. The process advocated by Dr. Andrew Bunan is as follows:
· Cross breed until you hit a cross that possesses the qualities you desire for a new bloodline.
· Inbreed in order to purify the desired traits and promote consistency.
· Separate the inbred into different families. Over time or after six generations these separate families will become unrelated to one another.
· Mate or outbreed individuals from one family with individuals from the other families in the process maintaining the bloodline’s composition but avoiding inbreeding.
This is the best process, a model on how to form a new bloodline. Individuals produced in this manner are not only pure as far as traits are concerned but also pure as far as bloodline composition. The process will, however, take time. It may take at least seven years, often more-- too long for practical purposes. Traditional breeders do this. They would say “to protect the integrity of our bloodline.” Another phrase oft-repeated by traditional breeders is “I have kept this bloodline for so many years without any infusion.” As a practical breeder, I doubt if it could be done without severe deterioration or breakdown of the line. But true or not, right or wrong these phrases always add significance to their bloodlines to the eyes of a potential buyer or newcomers to the game.
But again, for practical breeders, what is important is to purify the desired traits, not the bloodline. If purifying attributes and characteristics will do the trick, why bother doing for so many years what you could achieve in one or two? My personal opinion is that what Dr. Bunan presented was a perfect model for traditional and serious breeders. In RB Sugbo, we came up with some sort of a happy compromise. Our brood fowl are at least twice inbred. But we don’t go to the extent of going the full route of five to six generations of inbreeding. The longer you inbred, the higher the risk of depression and the lower the increase in the degree of being pure.
After two or three generations of inbreeding we already consider our fowl practical pure as far as the genetic composition is concerned. But we will not use or pass them on as brood fowl unless we are satisfied that they are also practical pure as far as our purifying traits and characteristics is concerned
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|Posted by Rey Bajenting on January 25, 2012 at 9:00 AM||comments (0)|
At RB Sugbo, incubation is either by natural or artificial. Mostly by artificial method of setting and hatching eggs by electric incubators. Our hatcheries are by GLITech, of Gilbert L. Inisin. RB Sugbo and GLITech have been collaborating and working together in discovering the better systems and designs in incubation technology.
Brooding is also both by natural—hen brooding, or artificial. In this respect, we find natural hen brooding as the better method. Thus, most of our chicks are hen brood.
Once a hen gets broody and set to start setting eggs, we put back some of the stored eggs on the nest for the hen to set. At the same time, we also place a number of eggs in the artificial incubator, whether hers or from other hens. The naturally set eggs and those in the incubator will hatch at about the same time. At night we put in the nest the artificially hatched chicks along with the hen hatched. The following morning, the hen will be misled into believing all the chicks are hers and will take care of all of them. However, care should be taken that the chicks are of similar color as some hens kill different-looking chicks.
This method will save time for some hens. Some of the hens will not have to sit on their own eggs as the eggs are artifically incubated, thus they can be prepared immediately for the next clutch of eggs and insemination. These hens are also spared from brooding chicks, a process that will take at least a month of their time.
In the first two weeks, hen and chicks are kept in enclosures that will protect the chicks from rain and bad weather. These little houses are floorless and movable. The hen is tethered so it cannot partake on the feed for the chicks.
After two weeks, the chicks may be allowed outside by opening a door. The hen remains tethered inside so the chicks will not venture too far away. Soon the hens shall likewise be allowed outside so mother and chicks can now roam farther. At night hen and chicks get back to the house for protection from weather and predators.
Throughtout the brooding period, no anti-biotic is given, unless very necessary, when an outbreak occurs or clear manifestation of illness is seen in the flock. otherwise probiotics is freely given to both hen and chicks.
When the chicks are separated from the hen, they go to the range area.
|Posted by Rey Bajenting on September 27, 2011 at 2:55 AM||comments (0)|
The blakliz is a bloodline of excellent gamefowl created and developed by RB Sugbo Gamefowl Technology. It is named after my wife Liza. I felt she deserved the honor for being such a good hen to our five children. The play of words also reflected our breeder’s dream that someday the bloodline will be so dreaded that it would be blacklisted from the cockpits. Dreaming is one thing, facing reality another. We knew there would never be such much- feared a bloodline of gamefowl. So after years of developing the Blakliz, we were more than happy just to find the blakliz as the best among our humble repertoire of not so great but decent bloodlines that could compete with dignity in the country’s tough derbies.
Only now that we were fully convinced that the blakliz is the best in our arsenal that we decided to breed the blakliz extensively. It was just recently, in years 2010 and the current stag season to be exact, that we concluded that the blakliz was ready for the toughest battles after testing the bloodline in the stag seasons year after year. Beginning 2012 we would be fighting more blakliz stags, and making available to buyers and client sets of blakliz brood fowl. We are confident the blakliz will live up to expectations. We see it as one of the bloodlines of the future. It seems everybody is ordinarily breeding sweaters, roundheads, kelsos, hatches, buliks, golds and other common bloodlines. So why be just ordinary when you may breed the blakliz.
The e-book Breeding the Blakliz: A Guide to Practical Breeding (free copy available on request by email to email@example.com) then is written not only for those who want to be a practical breeder but also for those of you who may dare to be different and breed the blakliz. This will familiarize you with the bloodline and will enable you to continue its desired development and enjoy the challenge of breeding something different.. By different, we mean not only in looks, but also in fighting ability. In looks, the original blakliz is actually just sort of a combination of the brown red and the mug. However, they are very much unlike the sweater, roundhead, kelso that fill the pits. They are also dissimilar from the now popular off-colors buliks, golds and whites. The midnight grey is more distinct. It is nearer the dirty grey except that it has more solid black feathers rather than in patches and splashes. The difference is more in the fighting ability. The blakliz has no particular fighting style. It is neither typically angat, nor flier, nor rusher, nor shuffler. But it might be able to do any or all of the above if the situation requires as the blakliz has intelligence, agility and speed. It is intelligent enough to discern what ought to be done in a certain situation. It is agile enough to execute what it thinks ought to be done. And, it is fast and quick enough to do it ahead of the opponent.
So welcome to the world of the Blakliz.
|Posted by Rey Bajenting on July 10, 2011 at 8:40 PM||comments (0)|
The book Lihim sa Pagbuo ng Sariling Linyada by Dr. Andrew T, Bunan, the Philippines leading authority on gamefowl genetics, advocates and recommends to all Filipino breeders to form their own bloodlines. To form own bloodline is always a sound breeding objective.
Here is the introduction to the book written in Pilipino:
"Sa kasalukuyan, napakaraming linyada (bloodlines) ng sasabunging manok dito sa ating bansa. Ang mga ito ay sadyang matatapang at magagaling, dahil sa napakahabang panahon na sila ay pinili batay sa mga katangiang ito. Kalimitan, kahit hindi natin tanto, tumutulong tayo sa pagpapaibayo ng mga katangiang ito. Paano?Ang simpleng pagpili sa pinakamahusay sa magkakapatid o sa isang langkay ng mga manok ay siguradong magdadagdag sa kahusayan at katapangan ng mga magiging anak ng piniling manok.
May isang bagay lamang na kaagad-agad mauobserbahan o malalaman sa mga linyada ng manok dito sa atin-- ang nga pangalan ng mga ito ay tunog-banyaga. Hindi natin sinasabi na hindi ito maganda-- di dana'y wala tayong pinag-uusapang industriya ng sasabunging manok ngayon dito sa atin. Siyempre malaki ang utang na loob natin sa mga kaibigan nating mga Amerikanong nagpapalahi ng mga manok na ito, dahil halos lahat na kinagigilian nating mga linyada ay galing sa kanila. Kaya lamang, lubhang nakasanayan na natin na palaging nakakabit ang pangalang banyaga sa mga linyada natin. Ang hinahanap-hanap natin ay mga linyadang tunog-Pinoy naman, ngunit singtapang at singhusay rin ng mga kasalukuyang linyada. Maaaring hindi ngayon, ngunit ito ay inaasahan na natin pagdating ng araw. Kaya natin ito!
Di madaling gawin, ngunit posible. Kailangan lamang natin malaman ang mga linyada sa kasalukuyan ay puwede nating gamitin upang makabuo tayo ng sarili nating linyada na hindi naman lumalayo sa mga linyadang nakasanayan na natin. Katunayan, mayroon nang mga linyadang nabuo ang ilan sa mahuhusay nating mga tagapagpalahi, gaya ng Zamboanga White at Zamboanga Blues ni Boy Primallon, ang mga Parawakan na pinasikat ng yumaong Speaker Ramon Mitra at kamakailan lamang, ang Blakliz ni Rey Bajenting." -- (Andrew T. Bunan, Lihim sa Pagbuo ng Sariling Linyada, Llamado Publications)
|Posted by Rey Bajenting on May 4, 2011 at 5:05 AM||comments (0)|
Game fowl breeding is not only very complicated, it is also time- consuming and expensive. Thus, it is tagged as domain of the rich. Small timers may be able to challenge the big timers for supremacy in other aspects of cockfighting such as selection, knife tying, conditioning and handling, but not in breeding. Because breeding, supposedly, does not only require substantial capital investment in breeding stocks, land and facilities, it also demands quality time from one’s self, as well as, paid manpower and technology that are beyond the reach of ordinary lovers of chicken. Plus the fact that game fowl breeding is a hit and miss affair, meaning it is like lottery wherein we always hope to hit some prizes but more often than not end up with nothing. In this regard, the more advantage the rich breeders enjoy, because they will have the luxury of more breeders which is akin to buying more lottery tickets, thus, enhancing their chances of hitting a jackpot.
Most books on game fowl breeding begin in discussing the huge amount necessary to start up, therefore, disqualifying outright the ordinary aficionado who dreams of someday producing game fowl of his own creation. Well, what most books say is proper and true. But that’s the ideal situation. It doesn’t, however, mean that those of us who could not afford the ideal situation, could no longer try. Otherwise, this would mean that ordinary chicken lovers no longer have the right, or say, chance to face the challenges in game fowl breeding and experience the enjoyment in trying, or the satisfaction in reaping the fruits of their labor?
Maybe, we can still pursue breeding even under less-than-ideal conditions? Anyway, in cockfighting, each one of us, like water, seeks his own level. Maybe we could just set our breeding goals to the demands of the level and the standards of circuits we intend to compete in? Maybe less expensive but acceptably good breeding materials will do. For after all, breeding is so complicated that one could not ascertain the outcome. Sometimes, the most beautiful brood stocks produce mediocre offspring while average parents produce outstanding progeny. The reason for this is that we only judge the parents based on the traits we see or phenotype. But there are characteristics we could not see, the genotype. Therefore a beautiful and superb fighter for a brood cock does not guarantee success. Maybe just a small land will suffice. We don’t need hectares of ranging area when we only raise a few dozen stags a season. And, with target production of just a few dozen stags, certainly we don’t need millions in operating capital.
RB Sugbo chickens enjoyed moderate successes in our own circle as well as those in which our clients competed. They were also competitive in stag tournaments such as Bakbakan, Heritage Cup, Rambulan and local GBA competitions. But, I have yet to see one of my chickens pitted in these so-called big events with hundreds of thousands of pesos in entry fee alone. I might have not been able yet to produce rooster in the caliber of the most expensive bloodlines in the country, but I enjoyed consolation in the knowledge that the sugbus may compete with dignity in the toughest derbies anywhere.
The first thing is to set a realistic goal. For example, the goal of RB Sugbo was to produce quality chickens that could be competitive in small and medium sized derbies and make them affordable to common sabungeros. The fact that RB Sugbo has produced some chickens that were competitive in some top derbies didn’t hurt. We considered it success beyond expectation, thus a bunos.
Maybe an appropriate goal for any ordinary upstart breeder is to produce bloodlines that could compete in hackfights and derbies in a locality. You don’t have to aspire for world beaters when you don’t intend to compete in international derbies. But your goal doesn’t rule out the possibility that you can produce world beaters. Many successful breeders started up small and ended up big. On the other hand, I have known of big shots who started breeding with all guns ablaze. Unfortunately, after many years, their guns were still firing blanks!
For all we know, all it takes for one to experience the enjoyment and satisfaction of breeding the game fowl are a realistic goal, corresponding capital to back it, and determination to succeed. This is what we call practical breeding. (This is an introduction to the book Guides on Practical Breeding soon to be released)
|Posted by Rey Bajenting on March 28, 2010 at 1:01 PM||comments (1)|
All-purpose chicken raising
By Rey Bajenting
Ang manok na sa pagalaan, sa bukirin o sa linang lumaki ay mas maige kaysa manok na sa maliit na kulungan o yarda lang inalagaan. Mas matibay ang pangangatawan, mas maige ang pagunlad ng kalamanan at pagiisip, at mas malakas at mabilis ang manok na laki na pinagala sa madamo at malaking lugar. Nakakain ito ng mga damo, halaman at prutas, at ng mga insekto uod at bulate. Kung ilalaban an ganitong manok mas magagaling at matitibay kaysa laking kulungan. Kung gawin namang karne, mas masarap ang lasa.
Ang kaalamang ito ang nag-udyok sa RB Sugbo Gamefowl Technology na isali sa programa ang bio-organic gamefowl raising. Ang hangad ay ang gawing panlaban ang mga lalaki at karne ang mga babae at reject na lalaki. Kung may nagaalaga pa ng native chickens para karne at kumikita naman, di hamak, na mas malaki ang kikitain kung sa halip na native chicken ang aalagaan, manok Amerikano nalang na maaring pansabong
Pagpapalahi. Napakadali ang sistema na ito ng RB Sugbo. Una pumili ng mga tatyaw dalawa, tatlo o marami depende sa lugar at sa makakayanan. I-cord ang tatyaw na malalayo sa isa’t-isa sa loob ng nakabakod na malaking yarda o pagalaan. Samahan ng mga inahin. Kahit lima hanggang sampung inahin sa bawat tatyaw. Samakatuwid kung dalawang tatyaw maaring hanggang dalawampung inahin ang pagsamasamahin natin. Ang tawag natin dito ay controlled natural selection mating.
Pagpapapisa . Maglagay sa loob ng yarda ng pabahay kung saan doon matutulog ang mga inahin sa gabi, at ito na rin ang magsilbeng nesting area. Maglagay tayo ng nests kung saan sila mangingitlog. Isang nest sa bawat apat o limang inahin tama na. Hindi naman lahat ay sabay na mangitlog at maglilim.
Walang kailangan ng incubator ang mga inahin na mismo ang kusang maglimlim. Pag may napisa na ilipat ang inahin kasama ang mga sisiw sa isang brooding pen. Diretso sa lupa ang mga sisiw.
Pagmalakilaki na ang mga sisiw binubuksan ang pintuan sa araw upang ang mga sisiw ay makagala sa labas ng pen habang ang inahin ay nakatali sa loob. Ang pen na ito ay portable na linilipat bawat dalawa o tatlong araw. Palaging malinis ang lupa na kinalalagyang ng mga sisiw at saka sariwa ang damo. Darating ang panahon na ang mga sisiw ay hihiwalay na sa inahin at hindi na babalik sa loob ng brooding pen. Sa labas na ang mga ito matutulog. Kaya sa loob ng tinatawag natin na brooding yard, ay may mga pabahay din kung saan doon makakatulog ang mga sisiw sa gabi. Sa gabi pag nasa loob na ang mga sisiw sinasara ito upang walang hayop na makapasok na maaring kumain sa mga sisiw.
Pagpagala. Sa edad na tatlong buwan pinapalabas na natin ang mga sisiw sa brooding yard papunta sa mas malaking pagalaan, ang free range area. Pero bago ito gawin dapat ay kumpleto na ang ating vaccination o bakuna. Sa RB Sugbo walang fixed na pabahay sa pagalaan. Ang ginagawa natin ay yong mga sisiw na pagagalain na ay pinatutulog natin ng dalawa o tatlong araw sa bahay na may gulong. Pagkatapos ay dahan-dahan nating ilabas at ilayo ang bahay na ito. Ilagay ito sa lugar na malayo sa ibang pabahay. Ito ang magiging kampo ng mga sisiw hanggang sa malaki na sila at sa mga punong kahoy na hahapon.
Sa edad na tatlong buwan pinipili na natin ang mga babae na ititira. Ang iba ay kinakatay at pinagbibili bilang spring chicken. Ang iba ay binibili ng buhay para gawing palahian. Iba naman ang presyo nito kaysa kinakatay na por kilo lang ang presyo.
Harvest . Pag naglaban-laban na ang mga binatilyo, hinuhuli ang mga ito at tinatali sa cord area. Ito ang ating harvest.
Pakain . Makakatipid tayo sa pakain dahil makakahanap ng pakain ang mga manok sa pagalaan. Lalo na’t kung sinusuportahan natin ng natural inputs ang pagalaan. Halimbawa maglagay tayo ng mga compost o bulok na punong kahoy kung saan maninirahan ang mga anay at insekto, at mga bulok na prutas at gulay. Kukunti na lang ang ating ibibigay na commercial feeds. O kaya’y mais at kukunting pellets na lang. Kasi ang protina, bitamina at mineral ay makukuha na ng manok galing sa lupa at sa pagalaan. Maghalo lang din tayo ng mumurahing gamot at suplement sa tubig.
Ang mga manok na pinalaki sa ganitong pamaraan ay matitibay sa labanan kung ilalaban. Ang mga babae o mga reject na lalaki na gagawing karne ay napakasarap dahil katukad ito ng native chicken. Ang itlog naman ng mga ito ay napakasustansya dahil punong puno sa omega 3 na makukuha sa damo at mga halaman sa pagalaan na kinakain ng manok. Kaya ang tawag natin nito ay all-purpose chicken raising.
Ang pamamaraan na ito ay tinutulak ngayon ng RB Sugbo sa layunin na makatulong sa mga marginal chicken farmers. May dalawang mahalagang bagay lang. Una ang uri at lahi ng manok na gagamitin. Ang karaniwang manok amerikano o gamefowl kasi ay hindi kasing tibay ng native chicken kung ang paguusapan ay ang katangiang mag survive kung hayaan lang sa linang. Piliin ang strain o lahi ng gamefowl na gagamitin.
Pangalawa ay pagaralan din ang teknolohiya o pamamaraan. Pero hindi mahirap at madali lang itong matutunan. Sa katunayan may mga pamahalaang local na na nagpakita ng interes na ito ay gawing bahagi ng kanilang mga livelihood program. May mga kumpaniya na rin na handang tumulong. Sa totoo hindi naman ito talagang bagong pamamaraan. Bagkus isa itong hy-brid o kumbinasyon ng pamamaraan na ang ideya ay angkop lang sa sitwasyon sa Pilipinas.
Oo, dahil sa ating napakalagong gamefowl industry. Sa ibang bansa kung gagawin mo ito, karne lang at itlog ang iyong mapapala dahil walang sabong doon. Pero dito sa atin mas malaki ang kikitain ng chicken farmer sa benta ng manok na gagawing panabong kaysa kikitain ng itlog at karne. Ang pamamaraan na ito ay angkop sa mga maliliit na chicken raiser o sa mga karaniwang sabungero na nais masiyahan sa pagsasabong na hindi naman mabigat sa bulsa. May dalawang mundo ang sabong. Ang mundo na ginagalawan ng mga tahor, bigtime breeders at cockers, at mga bigtime derby promoters. Ang isang mundo naman ay ang ginagalawan nating mga karaniwang sabungero at masang nagmamanok. Ang naunang mundo ay “can take care of itself” ika nga. Hindi nangangailangan ng tulong. Ang pangalawang mundo ay ang mundo na ang kailangang pagtuunan ng pansin dahil ang mga gumagalaw dito ang mga nangangailangan ng tulong.